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Physical Security

Question 1

The Federal Reserve System (FRS) is the central place for storage of currency in the United States. Its work is to provide a safe, flexible, and entirely stable monetary system for the country. This agency is headed by the board of governors whose main offices are situated in Washington D.C. They guide the monetary policy and analyze the entire international and local financial systems to ensure their stability. Apart from that, the Federal Reserve System studies current issues, for instance, the consumer banking laws and electronic commerce. Therefore, from all these roles FRS plays it can be seen that this is a very sensitive part of the country since it deals with the full control of money and various banks. The same money is what may be used by the other agencies to conduct their planning such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which spends money in purchasing the various types of tools that they use for their operations. However, if the money available is not enough for them, it would be impossible to acquire all the necessary requirements for security operations, therefore, the country’s defensive ability will be undermined. Also, money is required for the control of the country’s economy. If the Federal Reserve System breaks down, and it is unable to run its operations normally and thus go down, it will lead to the downfall of the full economy (Mallery 42). The destruction of the economy will bring with it other negative consequences. First, the immediate negative effect will be that the current goods and services that are on sale will rise in their offered price. Considering that the citizens also have a tendency of always pointing an accusing finger at the government, in relation to this matter, they will blame government for hiking the prices of commodities and this will in turn result to political unrest. The government will, therefore, be undermined in its functioning since it will lack support from its citizens. As the situation progresses and worsens over time, it may result in attacks and a tendency to want to overthrow the government, eventually war in a worst case scenario.

Therefore, for the reasons stated above, all efforts should be made by all concerned stakeholders concerning the Federal Reserve System to ensure the continuity of its operation for economic and political reasons. Wrongful political ambitions may lead to those in positions of influence in government conniving to cause the abolishment of the agency by the government since all the power to abolish and create new organizations comes from the government. Sadly, most of the citizens, working in these companies will lose their jobs and therefore, the poverty levels will hike (Mallery 53). These are more reasons as to why the Federal Reserve System should have a complex system to ensure continuity of its operations to ensure that the citizens retain their jobs and that the government is also stable to execute all its programs on time and without interruptions.

In connection to this, backup of the systems of the Federal Reserve is paramount. Backup of all the data in its servers is critical considering that a lack of such a strategy in place may lead to permanent damage in case of a catastrophe at its headquarters. If a backup is not done and there is a disaster in the nation, not to mention that the nature of disasters is that they are unpredictable, there may be significant losses on every individual in the country. Lack of having this backup plan may lead to loss of crucial material and all of the data which is stored in the system. As emphasized by Palley, a nationwide catastrophe will result in a complete loss of all equipment and computers including data servers (Palley 65). This information, if lost becomes quite hard to recover. Considering that the stored information is in the headquarters, means that it contains very critical and sensitive information about most of the banks in the USA. The raw data loss will lead to ruining the system. Apart from that, the information which would be lost must have been created over an extended period, spanning over several years if not centuries, therefore, it will not be possible to recover it in a few months. This will require the organization to start themselves as a new company and entity (Palley 72). Therefore, the presence of the backup will allow the continuity of the team even after a total catastrophe occurs and avoid a starting from scratch.

Question 2

The Federal Reserve System apart from the threat of closing down due to lack of a backup is also faced with several other potentially threatening scenarios that require being addressed. The nature and type of threat and the extent of the damage they can cause vary widely from one situation to another. However, the aim is to have absolute safety from any potential damage or loss as this system has been seen to be a sensitive part of the USA government and country at large.

Apart from the lack of a backup plan by the Federal Reserve headquarters, one other instance that could lead to the shutdown of the agency would be a fire. In case a fire occurred it would cause the burning down of important equipment and files resulting in the system becoming defunct, in an extreme case the fire may burn down the whole system causing irreparable damage and eventual shut down of the system. Also, a bomb explosion could lead to its shut down. The bomb could result in damage to the infrastructure and all the equipment in the agency. Therefore the bomb will give rise to a large volume destruction of information. When fire either from lightings such as burning gasoline, electrical faults or bombs burns anything, it leads to complete loss of the item and may not be recovered afterward. Also, another scenario that may lead to the closure and shut down of the Federal Reserve is when the Congress board makes the decision to make the operation of the central bank come to an end (Griffith and James 67). Earlier, they had the power to form the Federal Reserve by the Federal Reserve Act which was formed in December 1913 as a counter response to the economic panic which was held in the USA in the year 1907. As they had the power to come up with this agency, they also have the authority to abolish the office and come up with a new organization or a better plan to control the economy of the USA. This may be a dangerous and risky method to use since it may lead to the complete loss or downfall of the USA economy during that period of transfer and therefore, this will be a rarely undertaken step in shutting down the Federal agencies.

Therefore, when any fire occurs, it should be countered by trying to stop it and calling the firefighting personnel. If the fire cannot be countered, some of the necessarily reachable materials should be evacuated to prevent a total loss of the information (Palley 98). Also, all the working personnel should be evacuated once the fire is detected to ensure their safety. Also in the USA, there is a significant threat of hurricanes. Controlling hurricanes are almost impossible since these are natural events. Similarly, earthquakes also come in naturally. If these natural weather changes of earth disturbances occur, they may result in the collapse of the agency buildings. If a violent earthquake occurs making the buildings housing the agency collapse, there will be massive destruction of the technology containing the information in the computers and the network systems in the building. Eventually, the agency may be closed. Measures need to be made safeguard against such eventualities.

Question 3

The above mentioned potential disastrous situations are mostly hard to control or avoid. Disasters brought by fire, hurricanes or earthquakes may be almost due to no human action. However, the matter of bombs is a different ball game. However, this is not to say that a bomb explosion is controllable, a matter of fact is that it may at times not be controllable. Over recent decades, there has been seen to be an upward trend of the constant threat of massive truck bombs by terrorists.  The terrorists have been known to go as far as committing suicide in their process of setting off their bombs in what has come to be referred to as suicide bombing, which also cannot be stopped (Spellman and Frank 121). The enemies may go as far as they can just to see the Americans suffer. Although a massive truck bombing has never occurred or there may be no intelligence indicating that such an attack is imminent, there is still need for the government to take caution. Therefore the government should take a complete measure to ensure that they keep a close watch on the terrorists. They should make sure that all their agencies are properly guarded against terrorist attacks. Functioning systems which have a high accuracy in the detection of the presence of any bomb or explosive material should be put into place. Also, the government should do its part to avoid war with other countries at all costs and promote peaceful correlation. Some of the attacks are from other nations not only the terrorists. Therefore, the government should hold up peace conferences with other nations which they are at war with (Palley 89).

As far as peace is concerned, the government should try to discuss ways in which they can work together to fight terrorism and its effects in different parts of the country. On top of the list among the various agenda of their meetings, they should have access to the Federal offices be for personnel only. Any other person who is not a worker in the federal agencies should not be allowed into their buildings. This is to ensure that the terrorists and other enemies, that may try to cause harm, do not have the chance to take a look at the interior layout of the agency and be able to pinpoint the weak areas of the agency. The premises of the Federal agencies should be kept a secret, and no one else should be able to know the strategic positioning of the body. There should be maximum security at the entrance of the agency to ensure that there is a thorough check up on all the goods and the motorcycles and any form of vehicle that enters the office to be certain that there is no presence of any explosives. Also, the federal agencies should ensure that they have backup offices and they back up their data in different secretive places which are not known by the citizens or by the enemies. This should act as security just in case the federal agencies are attacked (Mallery and Mary 87). All the information that will be damaged and destroyed will be present at the backup places and therefore the program will continue to run safely and frequently and will ensure that there is no interruption since it is one of the most delicate processes. In connection with the same, they should work together with the so-called enemies to fight terrorism. The government should also try to talk with the citizens so that they can also be able to know the people they are living together with and ensure that they are not people who could cause harm to the nation. These are among the many methods that the government should work on to ensure that they are at peace with everyone else to prevent such attacks even though they may have never occurred or there is no such intelligence showing potential attacks being planned. Better safe than sorry should be the policy as far as massive truck bombings are concerned.

Question 4

When the Federal Reserve is put off commission, a couple of strategies will be required. Strategies need to be made to ensure the continuation of operations to help in putting back the economy where it was and ensuring that there is no complete downfall of the economy whether the agency is available or not. This will help even to make sure that the security of the workers and the citizens is not at all put at stake. One possible way is by ensuring that the workers work at different places and agencies. However, in case there is need to relocate the workers, various factors should be considered such as; where will the workers be transferred to? Should it be near their homes or should their property be moved to a nearer place? As for the workers who were already present and old at the agencies, will they be able to get their retirement benefits still or will they be forced to drop the issues about their benefits? Will the transfers be fair or will it lead to fights and acts of revenge among the Commission (Prokop 59)? Who will be employed to undertake the specified work of relocation and attending on the issue of retiring? Will the retirees’ ages of retirement be increased or will they be allowed to withdraw safely as other new recruits are offered their jobs? These are some of the planning issues that will be addressed and put into focus for the betterment of the agencies and its workers and the economy as a whole.

A critical point of concern is first the location to move the headquarters of the Federal agencies. These headquarters should be moved to an unspecified place. It should be transferred to a safer and bigger place to allow its expansion. The place should also be readily available to the various governmental entities which will also be employed in place to keep watch at the Reserve. It should mainly comprise of only the most trusted. Any form of corruption should be counteracted and not allowed in the Federal. Any violation of this stipulation should be dealt with heavily by the victim being fired from their offices and dismissed. Therefore, they should be locked up in prison for many years such that during their release, they will never even think of performing any act of corruption ever again.

On relocating the agencies, the physical conditions should be made to ensure that the previous agency works as good as the current office. There should be no squeeze up of the employees. Each employee requires enough space and air to carry out such a crucial assignment without any interruption. There should be an assurance to safety also so that the workers are not in distress (Spellman and Frank 98). The conditions of employees are highly addressed since they are the ones that will determine the nature of the currency that will be produced. They should be in a quiet place, and everyone should be able to concentrate on his or her. The workers should be encouraged to enquire from the other. It is well known that two heads are better than one. In the case of an attack, the office of the national treasury should be moved from its current position to another position. This will make the enemies and terrorists have a hard time in making their follow up attacks the agencies. With each move that the enemies will try to make, the financial institution will be transferred to another place and therefore the destructive plan will not be executed. This will be a major way to stop the random attacks that always happen at a single location. Some places are always prone to insecurity. These are among the many areas that should be avoided to ensure that there is continuity of the money culture and that the economy will always be way above the other countries. Though there will be a random movement to different places, it should be ensured that the Treasury office maintains its leadership roles. There should be no interference with the movement in such a way that the bank office functions will be undermined. The movement should be slow and take enough time to avoid forgetting of any necessary resources or documents in different rooms. This may even cause a loss of crucial documents which cannot be retrieved anytime soon by the experts who are very well known in retrieving paramount lost documents. Once documents are left out, they cannot be retrieved from any form of computer network mostly if the left out forms were in the form of printed documents.

After a full relocation of the headquarters finally, there is a check on where the different people should be located. In such a setting, the basis should be on the level of seniority as dictated in the employee database in the Federal System. First to be considered are the senior employees. Most of the senior employees are quite old, and their eviction or transfer will cause great distress to them and their working ability. Also, the senior workers have a lot to attend therefore their dispersion from the headquarters will be a little confusing. Therefore, the older and senior workers should be allowed to remain and be relocated in the same building since they are already adapted to the structure, and therefore their process would be handled quite differently. On the other hand, the less senior and younger workers in the agency should be relocated to other buildings. It is quite evident that the younger workers are faster-moving employees. They have fewer documents to transfer from their relocation place. Also, they work out their stuff faster than the older people. They should be set up at different branches to ensure that the perfect work that is continuing in the main building is transferred to the other branches also. These younger workers could even be set up to take higher ranking positions even as managers in their departments since they have acquired experience and important sills from the senior employees in the central headquarters (Spellman and Frank 116). When the building is being repaired, it will be quite comfortable to be moved to the United States Treasury office. Here they will even gain a different experience on how the work of Treasury keeps moving on. This is a place where they are well related and conversant with. They should be able to help out even a couple of activities in the offices as they wait for the completion of repairs in their offices. Also, this will be a central place for them to govern the whole of the United States of America. This is among the most respected agencies, and therefore they will gain more by working at this place. Their leadership roles will not be undermined since they will have moved to a location that suits their rank in the nation.

A point of concern and to be noted is that since there will be an increased population in the agency, there will, therefore, be more cars in the parking lot. The parking will need to be expanded and put into a sizeable size for all the cars to fit in. this is the reason why a large agency is always required to ensure that there is always room for expansion. This will be a temporary expansion of the people from the different organizations move back to their respective places after the repairs are completely done. If the finance agency does not have enough space for the cars to fit well, some other methods could be used. One of these methods is that they should try to minimize the number of vehicles which are present in the car park. This will ensure that the numbers of cars, which reach the parking lot, are minimal. Some other methods such as a combined transport should be put into place. The transport of the workers should be combined. The company should, in that case, buy cars which will be able to pick the workers from their different locations and maybe even return them home after the day’s work. This will even save on the cost of fuel for the nation as a whole. It even serves as a way to minimize environmental pollution. Therefore, a smaller parking will be required for instance if it was to park 14 cars, all of the 14 workers will be carried along in one minibus, and therefore the space required will be for one car (Spellman and Frank 75). Many workers will cause overcrowding in the offices. Apparently, a large cost will be incurred to relocate some of the offices. Some of the employees may have to be relocated to other agencies to reduce the high rate of congestion.

Question 5

The data which is present in the Federal Reserve System should be regularly backed up and this information stored in remote servers away from the headquarters. Doing so will minimize the risk of losing the information in case of an attack. This is the reason why it should be done as frequently as possible because there is no knowledge on when there will be an attack that will destroy the whole information; in fact if possible, the best way to do a back up is in real time. What this means is that immediately a change is made in the system, the same should be immediately reflected in the backup and saved as the future is uncertain and disaster can occur at any second. Therefore, if the backup is always employed, there will always be the safety of the data at any time. However, considering the volume of the data that is constantly accessed and manipulated at a time, this may lead to a slowing down of the entire system, in which case, the data should be backed up at the time when the people are not working but daily. This back up when people are not working makes the people able to work during the day hours (Griffith and James 78). In this case, their job will not be interfered with, and therefore they will not be disturbed during their working hours but system downtime. At the same time, it is crucial to have multiple safeguards. Several safeguards are always required to ensure that even if there are multiple attacks, the information will never get lost permanently as there will always be a copy of the information somewhere else. By doing so, there will be a better assurance of greater security against data loss.